Exhibitions

One way that Creoles in the New World elevated their rank within the empire’s socio-racial hierarchy was by being admitted to chivalric orders in Spain. In this portrait painted in Madrid by the court artist Francisco de Goya, the Peruvian Tadeo Bravo de Rivero sports the cross and jeweled badge of the distinguished Spanish Order of Santiago on his jacket and left lapel. Tadeo Bravo studied in his native Lima, the capital of the viceroyalty of Peru, at the University of San Marcos and served as an officer there in the Royal Infantry. He eventually moved to Madrid and followed the path advocated by the former king, Charles III, who encouraged Creoles to hold government positions in Spain. Tadeo Bravo’s ascent was a great achievement, since Spanish policies still favored peninsular Spaniards (those from the Iberian Peninsula) for top political and ecclesiastical appointments.