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Jonathan C. Torgovnik: Valentine with her daughters Amelie and Inez, Rwanda

Jonathan Torgovnik documented the aftereffects of systematic rape in Rwanda during the 1994 genocide, when hundreds of thousands of Tutsi women were raped by members of Hutu militia groups. Approximately twenty thousand children were born from these atrocities; women who would not forsake these children were shunned and stigmatized by their families and tribal communities.

Torgovnik’s book, Intended Consequences: Rwandan Children Born of Rape features these women and their children and their firsthand testimonies. This portrait shows Valentine and her two daughters, one fathered by her husband, a Tutsi who was murdered while she was forced to watch, and another born from rape.