Bertha Lum's engagement with Japonisme was more tense than that of many of her American contemporaries. She embraced not only Japanese subjects and aesthetics but also Japanese techniques of color woodblock printing, which she learned during extended stays in the country. Traditionally, Japanese prints were made by three specialized craftsmen: an artist drew the picture, a carver transferred the image to the woodblocks, and a printer inked the blocks and produced the finished work. In recognition of her mastery of this medium. Lum was the only foreign artist included In Tokyo's Annual Art Exhibition of 1912.