Jardines del Pedregal
Jardines del Pedregal (English: Rocky Gardens) or simply El Pedregal (full name: El Pedregal de San Angel) is an upscale residential colonia (neighborhood) in southern Mexico City hosting one of the richest mansions of the city. It borders are San Jerónimo Avenue and Ciudad Universitaria at the north, Insurgentes Avenue at the east and Periférico at south and west. Its 1,250 acres (5.1 km2) were the major real estate project undertaken by Mexican modernist architect Luis Barragán. When it was originally developed, in the mid-1940s in the lava fields of the Pedregal de San Ángel, it was probably the biggest urban development the city had seen. The first house to be built here was the studio/home of architect Max Cetto.
The area has changed a lot since its original development but even as its modernist spirit and its original elements of ecosystem protection are gone critics have described its original development, the houses and gardens as a turning point in Mexican architecture. Some of the old modernist houses have been catalogued as part of Mexico’s national patrimony.
The Pedregal lava fields were formed by the eruption of the Xitle volcano around 5000 BC, but there are documented eruptions until 400 AD.
The area near what is currently el Pedregal, called Cuicuilco, was inhabited since ca. 1700 BC. Around 300 BC, the area contained what was probably the biggest city in the Valley of Mexico at the time. Its importance started to decline around the 100 BC and was completely empty by 400 AD.
In the mid-1940s Luis Barragán began a project to urbanize the area and protect its ecosystem. Barragán had the idea of developing El Pedregal promoting the harmony between architecture and landscape. The first structures built on the site were the Plaza de las Fuentes, or Plaza of the Fountains, the demonstration gardens and demonstration houses by Barragán and Max Cetto. Other famous architects that contributed to the development of Pedregal include: Francisco Artigas, Enrique Castañeda Tamborrell, José María Buendía, Antonio Attolini, Fernando Ponce Pino, Oscar Urrutia and Manuel Rosen.“Los Jardines del Pedregal de San Ángel, un legado de la modernidad arquitectónica 1947-1962”
Plaza de las Fuentes
El Pedregal's original main entrance, the Plaza de las Fuentes, was completed by the second half of 1949, and was located at the intersection of Fuentes and San Jerónimo avenues. The only remaining element of the plaza is the magnificent concrete Animal del Pedregal a sculpture by Mathias Goeritz, inspired by a prehistoric animal figure etched into the rocks of the Pedregal.
Model Gardens and Casas Muestra
The Model Gardens were designed by Luis Barragán for public inspection and planned as models for the development of private space.
The Casas Muestra were intended for publicity and sales purposes. The first one was built in 1950 according to the project by Max Cetto in collaboration with Luis Barragán (Av. Fuentes 130). Next to it, on Av. Las Fuentes 140, followed the home acquired by the painter Roberto Berdecio and designed by Max Cetto in 1951. Along with these residences, the Model Gardens were intended to entice prospective buyers and demonstrate the Pedregal's potential as a site for garden-homes. They were to illustrate Barragán's idea of correct building, promoting the sort of harmony between architecture and landscape that Barragán desired. Occupying about 7.4 acres (30,000 m2), these gardens were enclosed by volcanic-stone walls and iron fences and entered through metal or rough-hewn wood gates.
During summer evenings in the 1950s, classic Spanish plays, produced by Barragán and the painter and sculptor Juan Soriano, were performed here for the general public.
For sculptural effect, rocks and vegetation were left largely in place, crevices between the lava formations were cleared as paths, and at several points, rough-cut stairways passed between rock terraces. These stairways led to pools or fountains of various configurations, or to small patches of flat ground, where loam was brought in and lawns planted. The smooth surfaces of the lawns and pools provided contrast to the jagged rocks, while fountains lent kinetic and aural elements to the mix.
Although some of the original modernist residences still remain a lot of the original architecture has been substituted by more ostentatious structures. Because the original houses were built in large plots, some have been converted to horizontal condominiums or now house schools.
The Plaza de las Fuentes has been almost completely destroyed and large new office buildings now crowd it on either side, it is no longer the main entrance but just an exit street from El Pedregal.
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- Liceo Mexicano Japonés, the Japanese educational school of Mexico City, is located in Jardines del Pedregal.
- The Colegio Alemán Alexander von Humboldt operates the Plantel Pedregal, which has Kindergarten classes, as part of the Campus Sur/Campus Süd (formerly Campus Xochimilco).
- Colegio Princeton has its kindergarten and primary school campuses in Pedregal.
- Colegio Francés del Pedregal
- Vermont School Plantel Pedregal
- Instituto Alexander Bain
- 5. Aptilón, Alejandro y Alfonso Pérez Méndez, Las Casas del Pedregal 1947-1968 (2007), Ed. Gustavo Gili, Barcelona
- "At the Liceo: Where Two Cultures Meet." Mexico Journal (Information). Demos, Desarrollo de Medios S.A. de C.V., 1989. p. 22. "In southernmost Mexico City, nestled within the upscale neighborhood of the Jardines del Pedre- gal, is the private campus of the exclusive Liceo Mexicano Japones. In Japan, it is believed to be the best school in Mexico because Mexico because President Salinas' two sons and daughter attend classes there. Headmaster Arturo Zentella prefers to refrain from making such a boast, but he does admit that "it is a school that[...]"
- "Inicio." Liceo Mexicano Japonés. Consultado el 21 de enero de 2014. "Camino a Santa Teresa No.1500, Col. Jardines del Pedregal C.P. 01900 México D.F." Archived December 26, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- "DELEGACIÓN ÁLVARO OBREGÓN DIRECCIÓN GENERAL DE JURÍDICA Y DE GOBIERNO DIRECCIÓN DE GOBIERNO UNIDAD DEPARTAMENTAL DE LICENCIAS, GIROS MERCANTILES Y ESPECTÁCULOS PÚBLICOS." (Archive) Álvaro Obregón, D.F. p. 7/7. Retrieved on January 21, 2014. "LICEO MEXICANO JAPONES, A.C. JARDINES DEL PEDREGAL CAMINO A SANTA TERESA Num Ext. 1500 LICEO MEXICANO JAPONES JARDINES DEL PEDREGAL CAMINO A SANTA TERESA Num Ext. 1500"
- "Ubicaciones"/"Standorte." Colegio Alemán Alexander von Humboldt. Retrieved on April 4, 2016. "PLANTEL TEPEPAN Kindergarten - Primaria Camino Real a Xochitepec 89 Col. Tepepan, Del. Xochimilco 16030 México, D.F." and "PLANTEL LA NORIA Av. México 5501 Col. Huichapan (La Noria), Del. Xochimilco 16030 México D.F." and " PLANTEL PEDREGAL Kindergarten Camino a Santa Teresa 1579 Jardines del Pedregal, Álvaro Obregón 01900 Ciudad de México, Distrito Federal, México"
- "Campus." Colegio Princeton. Retrieved on April 12, 2016. "Kindergarten Av. de las Fuentes 214 Col. Jardines del Pedregal C.P. 01900 México D.F." and "Primaria Av. de las Fuentes 218 Col. Jardines del Pedregal C.P. 01900 México D.F."
- Home page. Vermont School. Retrieved on April 18, 2016. "Plantel Pedregal Preescolar y Primaria[...]Vereda Num. 90 Jardines del Pedregal C.P. 01900, México D.F."
- "Mantenimiento a Escuelas Página 57 de 79." Mexican Secretariat of Education. Retrieved on April 18, 2016.