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Emblem of the Leopard Spirit Society (Nkpa)

Arts of Africa

On View: African Storage Annex, East Gallery, 1st Floor
An nkpa is an emblem associated with a particular level of the Ngbe, a major men’s society that regulates social behavior among the Ejagham and Banyang people of the Cross Rivers area.

A drum membrane (missing here) occupies the center of an nkpa; drums symbolize the society’s legislative authority. The emblem is constructed of a palm-leaf mat with attached items such as a ceremonial broom, used to sweep away hostile “medicine,” loops of cordage that are signs barring entry to the sacred house, and a batonlike staff. Emblems are adorned with the skulls and horns of animals consumed at the feast held at the society’s founding.
CULTURE Ejagham
MEDIUM Wood, animal skulls, plant fiber, iron, pigment
DATES 19th century
DIMENSIONS 37 x 36 x 9 in. (94.0 x 91.4 x 22.9 cm)  (show scale)
COLLECTIONS Arts of Africa
MUSEUM LOCATION This item is on view in African Storage Annex, East Gallery, 1st Floor
ACCESSION NUMBER 1998.123
CREDIT LINE Frank L. Babbott Fund
RIGHTS STATEMENT Creative Commons-BY
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CAPTION Ejagham. Emblem of the Leopard Spirit Society (Nkpa), 19th century. Wood, animal skulls, plant fiber, iron, pigment, 37 x 36 x 9 in. (94.0 x 91.4 x 22.9 cm). Brooklyn Museum, Frank L. Babbott Fund, 1998.123. Creative Commons-BY
IMAGE overall, 1998.123_transp4450.jpg. Brooklyn Museum photograph
"CUR" at the beginning of an image file name means that the image was created by a curatorial staff member. These study images may be digital point-and-shoot photographs, when we don\'t yet have high-quality studio photography, or they may be scans of older negatives, slides, or photographic prints, providing historical documentation of the object.
CATALOGUE DESCRIPTION The basic structure of this dense and compact emblem, or nkpa, consists of a palm leaf mat woven in the form of a grid, roughly a square, with a fringe of palm fiber, perpendicular to the edges and projecting about 9 in. Onto grid, various fiber, skeletal, and manufactured objects are attached. These include 14 skulls: most appear to be from apes or monkeys; two appear to be from birds of prey; one large one at top of center appears to be from an ox, cow, or horse. Below large skull is tube of wood with hide adhered to it; around it is nestlike ring of root(?) fibers. The smallest skull, which is fragmentary, is attached to two large claws that are wrapped with fiber borders. Also attached are 3 wood clubs: one is long, the height of the proper right side; one is short in proper left corner; one, which may be a tool, is short and at bottom central edge. Inserted at lower proper left corner is folded section of heavily plied and twisted cord. There is an iron knife with painted blade and carved wood handle. Two long bundles of reeds are tied to form an X; two thorned branches are tied to form an X. Condition: An inherently fragile piece that should not be considered for an outward loan. The center was occupied by a membrane drum, the head of which is missing. Paint on iron blade is flaking and powdery. Object always needs to be stored flat in a customized box. For display, a vitrined case with light levels not to exceed 10 footcandles is recommended to protect organic components. Previous owner attached piece to black painted board with cleat for hanging.
RECORD COMPLETENESS Best (85%)
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