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Receipt for a Grain Loan

Egyptian, Classical, Ancient Near Eastern Art

On View: Egypt Reborn: Art for Eternity, 19th Dynasty to Roman Period, Martha A. and Robert S. Rubin Gallery, 3rd Floor
In the fifth century B.C.E., Egypt’s Elephantine Island was home to Egyptians, Persians, and Jews. This document comes from the archive of a Jewish family whose first language was Aramaic rather than Egyptian. It states that in December 402 B.C.E., Ananiah, son of Haggai, borrowed two monthly rations of grain from Pakhnum, son of Besa, an Aramaean with an Egyptian name. This receipt would have been kept by Pakhnum and returned to Ananiah when he repaid the loan. No interest is charged on the loan, but there is a penalty for failing to repay it on the appointed date.
CULTURE Aramaic
MEDIUM Papyrus, ink, mud
DATES December, 402 B.C.E.
DYNASTY XXVIII Dynasty
PERIOD Late Period
DIMENSIONS a: Glass: 14 15/16 x 16 1/4 in. (38 x 41.2 cm) a: Object: 11 13/16 x 13 3/4 in. (30 x 35 cm) Mud Seal 47.218.93b: 7/16 x 9/16 in. (1.1 x 1.5 cm)  (show scale)
ACCESSION NUMBER 47.218.93a-b
CREDIT LINE Bequest of Theodora Wilbour from the collection of her father, Charles Edwin Wilbour
RIGHTS STATEMENT No known copyright restrictions
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CAPTION Aramaic. Receipt for a Grain Loan, December, 402 B.C.E. Papyrus, ink, mud, a: Glass: 14 15/16 x 16 1/4 in. (38 x 41.2 cm). Brooklyn Museum, Bequest of Theodora Wilbour from the collection of her father, Charles Edwin Wilbour, 47.218.93a-b
IMAGE overall, 47.218.93_negJ_bw_IMLS.jpg. Brooklyn Museum photograph
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RECORD COMPLETENESS Good (72%)
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