Flourished circa 480 B.C.E., Halicarnassus (modern-day Turkey)
Artemisia I became the tyrant of Halicarnassus in the fifth century B.C.E. Legend states that she fought in the Battle of Salamis in 480 B.C.E. as a commander on the side of the Persians, who were fighting against the Greek city-states. She was about to be captured by the Greeks when she sunk a Persian ship, making the Greeks think she had switched sides.