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Egyptian, Classical, Ancient Near Eastern Art

On View: Funerary Gallery 2, Martha A. and Robert S. Rubin Gallery, 3rd Floor
The Egyptians manufactured funerary figurines, originally called shabties, as early as Dynasty 12 (1932–1759 B.C.E.). The earliest shabties are inscribed with either the deceased’s name (see nos. 1 and 2) or a simple form of Chapter 6 of the Book of the Dead. The rarity and high quality of the early shabties suggest that they were costly items produced for privileged persons.

Later, Chapter 6 began appearing more frequently on funerary figurines. The text mentions that they do agricultural tasks for the dead person: irrigating the fields, cultivating crops, and clearing away sand that blew in from the nearby desert.

As substitutes for the deceased, these figurines were sometimes given their own sarcophagi (see no. 6). To emphasize the agricultural function of the figurines, hoes and grain baskets were added to them (no. 8).

Wood (nos. 9–11), stone (nos. 12–14, 16), faience (no. 17), metal, and other materials were used beginning in Dynasty 18. By the end of the New Kingdom, statuettes for a single person were often mold-made by the hundreds and even thousands. Faience became the medium of choice, first in blue and later in light green or light blue (nos. 17, 20, 21).
MEDIUM Limestone
DATES ca. 1818-1539 B.C.E.
DYNASTY late Dynasty 12 to Dynasty 21
PERIOD Middle Kingdom to Second Intermediate Period
DIMENSIONS 8 7/16 x 3 5/8 x 2 3/4 in. (21.5 x 9.3 x 7 cm)  (show scale)
CREDIT LINE Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund
CATALOGUE DESCRIPTION Limestone mummiform ushabti. Only the hands are worked in relief, but the upper arms are indicated as an extension beyond the mummiform shape of the figure. The wig is tripartite, there is no beard or evidence thereof. The facial modeling is crude. A single column of text appears on the front. Condition: The piece is intact. The modeling is crude and there are traces of red paint on the back and glue where the head has been rejoined to the body.
CAPTION Shawabti, ca. 1818-1539 B.C.E. Limestone, 8 7/16 x 3 5/8 x 2 3/4 in. (21.5 x 9.3 x 7 cm). Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 37.145E. Creative Commons-BY (Photo: Brooklyn Museum, 37.145E_front_bw.jpg)
IMAGE front, 37.145E_front_bw.jpg. Brooklyn Museum photograph
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